Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 50-61
Review on the Biology of African Horse Sickness Virus and Its Vector
Demessa Negessu, National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Ethiopia
Takale Worku, National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, Sebeta, Ethiopia
Received: Aug. 4, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 19, 2020;       Published: Sep. 16, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijast.20200403.11      View  48      Downloads  22
Abstract
There are many infection and non infection disease those can decrease productivity of equine and even destroy their life. From those African horse sickness which caused by African horse sickness virus is the most characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates on equine. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, the virus was Family: Reoviridae, Subfamily: Sedoreovirinae and Genus: Orbivirus which shares many morphological and structural characteristics with the other members of this genus, Bluetongue virus and Equine encephalosis virus. This virus double stranded RNA virus which contains two different proteins with nine serotypes. Transmission of this virus is based on presence of culicoidmidget arthropod mainly Cullicoides specious (c. imucola). This blood feeding arthropod transmit virus mechanically and transovarially, however entrance of the virus through different mechanism that virus used based on protein contains. Replication is done by replicate enzyme of virus in host cytoplasm & virus protein translation by host machinery. From all sero-type AHS types 1-8 are considered to be highly pathogenic for horses and disease results in high mortality (90-95%). This virus resistant to different chemical, temperature range and PH value due to presence of some proteins. Cullicoides have different specious those are small insect, obligate blood sucker. In general, after surveillance was done for both virus and insect, control and prevention of African horse sickness is overcome by flow control strategy of virus and insect. Even though this review have best contribution during develop control strategy.
Keywords
African Horse Sickness Virus, Bluetongue Virus, Cullicoides, Equines, Orbivirus, Protein, Serotype
To cite this article
Demessa Negessu, Takale Worku, Review on the Biology of African Horse Sickness Virus and Its Vector, International Journal of Animal Science and Technology. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2020, pp. 50-61. doi: 10.11648/j.ijast.20200403.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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